Research

Week 1.2

In today’s class, we were introduced to the concept of Kaikiatanga. In groups, we brainstormed intangible and tangible aspects relevant to climate change. This helped mine and Savannah’s design process as we were able to visualize a broad spectrum of ideas that we could hone in on for our assignment. From the brainstorm and our own ideas, we chose an initial idea which was the detriments of carbon emissions caused by consumption of meat. A solution that we articulated in response to this issue was a more vegetable orientated diet.

These images depict tangible and intangible ideas that we discussed within our group brainstorm

-Jayson
Screen Shot 2017-04-24 at 3.10.25 pm
Soma, Jayson. “Tangibles Mindmap”. Screengrab, 2017
Screen Shot 2017-04-24 at 3.17.24 pm
Soma, Jayson. “Intangibles Mindmap”. Screengrab, 2017

Research into SABI issue

Climate change/bigger picture: An article by the David Suzuki Foundation provides a comprehensive overview of climate change and its negative implications. This article highlights issues that we could implement into our first animation that sets the tone for why change is necessary.

“Climate change is already having a significant impact on ecosystems, economies, and communities. Rising average temperatures do not simply mean balmier winters. Some regions will experience more extreme heat while others may cool slightly. Flooding, drought and intense summer heat could result. Violent storms and other extreme weather events could also result from the increased energy stored in our warming atmosphere. One of the most serious impacts of climate change is how it will affect water resources around the world. Water is intimately tied to other resource and social issues such as food supply, health, industry, transportation, and ecosystem integrity.

The impacts of climate change are already being observed across Canada’s diverse geographic regions. Canada’s forests are expected to be among the most vulnerable in the world to climate change. These forests support countless species and ecosystems and are among the many examples of at-risk habitat. The global meltdown of ice sheets and alpine glaciers represents another, taking an immense toll on Arctic ecosystems.

Climate change also threatens the health of our children and grandchildren through increased disease, freshwater shortages, worsened smog and more. These impacts also pose incalculable economic risks that far outweigh the economic risks of taking action today. The world’s leading scientists report that to prevent dangerous levels of global warming governments should act to limit global warming to less than 2ºC by taking concerted action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The sooner we act to reduce greenhouse gasses, the less severe impacts will be“. (Suzuki)

which leads to

↓↓

More specific issue: I found an article by the World Watch Institute, which outlines the specific percentages of carbon emissions that are caused by livestock. This site also outlines the effects of the byproducts of livestock, which would be helpful in providing more depth and comprehension to out issue. An article by Theguardian relates directly to the issue outlined by World Watch Institute’s, as they elude to a more vegetable orientated 

“A widely cited 2006 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Livestock’s Long Shadow, estimates that 18 percent of annual worldwide GHG emissions are attributable to cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, camels, pigs, and poultry. But a recent analysis by Goodland and Anhang finds that livestock and their byproducts actually account for at least 32.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year, or 51 percent of annual worldwide GHG emissions” (Goodland and Anhang).

which leads to

↓↓

Solution: An article by Theguardian relates directly to The World Watch Institute‘s criticisms, as they elude to a more vegetable orientated diet will reduce the need for livestock and their byproducts (supply chains), therefore carbon emissions.

Growing food for the world’s burgeoning population is likely to send greenhouse gas emissions over the threshold of safety unless more is done to cut meat consumption, a new report has found. A widespread switch to vegetarianism would cut emissions by nearly two-thirds, it said. In three decades, emissions related to agriculture and food production are likely to account for about half of the world’s available “carbon budget” – the limited amount of carbon dioxide and its equivalents that can be poured into the atmosphere if we are to hold global warming to no more than 2C.
While energy generation, transport, and buildings have long been a target for governments, businesses, and campaigners looking to reduce emissions, the impact from food production has often been left out. But on current trends, with intensive agriculture increasingly geared towards livestock rearing, food production will be a major concern.

The research, led by scientists at the Oxford Martin School, found that shifting to a mostly vegetarian diet, or even simply cutting down meat consumption to within accepted health guidelines, would make a large dent in greenhouse gasses.

Adhering to health guidelines on meat consumption could cut global food-related emissions by nearly a third by 2050, the study found, while widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet would bring down emissions by 63%. (Harvey)

-Jayson

Motion Graphics Research: I am interested in the videos below as they present their ideas is a simple fashion. The subject matter is not overcomplicated therefore it provides an easy center of focus. I also am interested in the way the video’s sequences translate and flow in such a fluid motion. From the two examples below, I am more intrigued by the Apple example as I know that this is a company that focuses on minimalism, simplicity, and usability. I want to use a similar style as I think that this may be a very effective way of communicating our issue and solution to viewers.

-Jayson

Website Research: These mood boards depict the minimalistic aesthetic that I interested in when designing our website. This style is appropriate as it matches the type of simple motion graphic style I am interested in. I think that the website designs below are of viable influence as they seem tidy clean and pure. The main theme of the examples is the balance of subject matter and white space, which creates harmony and contrast.

-Jayson
Screen Shot 2017-04-25 at 4.26.26 pm
Soma, Jayson. “Website Moodboard 1”. Screengrab. 2017
Screen Shot 2017-04-25 at 4.27.02 pm
Soma, Jayson. “Website Moodboard 2”. Screengrab.  2017

Critique: After talking to Claus we realised that we need to specify a target audience that would be attracted to our contemporary, minimalistic design. I found an article by Flavio Martins which specifies the particular target audience schema which is appropriate for our approach.

↓↓

Establishing a Target Audience: “Millennials and Gen Y consumers seem most drawn to the idea and aesthetics of minimalism. These generations have experienced an economic recession, reduced job market and an increase in student loans — factors that have shaped how they view the material world. This generation is aware of how suddenly there can be a flux in their economic status, so they gravitate towards more simple and minimalist practices and materials.

According to a Price Waterhouse Coopers report, 25 percent of 18-27 year olds have ‘significantly changed’ their shopping behavior and 47 percent have ‘somewhat changed’ their consumer behavior. The less-is-more attitude has been adopted by this generation, who also appreciate straightforward communication and transparency. This group values simple and effective information, rather than a flashy bombardment of sales jargon.

-Jayson

Week 1.2

In today’s class we reviewed the current moodboards that we’ve created. After sharing our ideas, Claus talked to us about having a particular demographic of consumers that we should design for. This helped further our design process as we were able to recognise that our design research wasn’t driven by one type of audience therefore we could work on this.  In response to Claus’s feedback, I worked on researching our target audience (generation Y & Millennials) and creating mood boards that coincide with their design preferences and interests.

-Jayson

Critique: After talking to Claus we realised that we need to specify a target audience that would be attracted to our contemporary, minimalistic design. I found an article by Flavio Martins, which specifies a particular target audience schema which is appropriate for our design approach.

-Jayson

↓↓

Establishing a Target Audience: “Millennials and Gen Y consumers seem most drawn to the idea and aesthetics of minimalism. These generations have experienced an economic recession, reduced job market and an increase in student loans — factors that have shaped how they view the material world. This generation is aware of how suddenly there can be a flux in their economic status, so they gravitate towards more simple and minimalist practices and materials.

According to a Price Waterhouse Coopers report, 25 percent of 18-27 year olds have ‘significantly changed’ their shopping behavior and 47 percent have ‘somewhat changed’ their consumer behavior. The less-is-more attitude has been adopted by this generation, who also appreciate straightforward communication and transparency. This group values simple and effective information, rather than a flashy bombardment of sales jargon” (Flavio Martins)

Key points to consider with our website and animation design

  • The less-is-more attitude has been adopted by this generation
  • also appreciate straightforward communication and transparency
  • This group values simple and effective information, rather than a flashy bombardment of sales jargon

My mood boards outlined our chosen style of design but did not specify who we’re designing for therefore I created a mood board with a range of figures and design styles that elude to generation Y and millennials. The basic notion of this mood board that I perceived was that these generations are active, youthful and are growing among a wave of contemporary styles and designs. 
Because we have decided that whilst we’re going to cultivate a design for genreration Y and millennials, it would make sense to incorporate a sense of contemporary artistic essence into our designs. This may essentially allow for our audience to familiarized with our designs.

-Jayson
Screen Shot 2017-04-27 at 1.59.49 pm.png
Soma, Jayson. Audience mood moard. Screengrab. 2017

Extracting Contemp design aspects I want to include

↓↓

After talking to Claus, I figured that using a purely minimalist aesthetic seems too simple He challenged us to push our direction further, therefore we want to combine minimalism and contemporary design together.

-Jayson
Screen Shot 2017-04-27 at 3.17.22 pm
Soma, Jayson. Contemporary mood board. Screengrab. 2017
Screen Shot 2017-04-27 at 3.17.02 pm
Soma, Jayson. Minimalist moodboard. Screengrab. 2017

Mood board1.jpg

Savannah Heatley, ‘Website mood board one’ 2017

Week 2.1

In today’s lecture, we talked about the importance of HTML, CSS and Javascript to our assignment. We also went over some resources that we can refer to when coding our websites. In my spare time, I watched half of the Lynda tutorial and downloaded Brackets to start getting familiar with code.
We decided to stick with our idea but change our target audience to children aged 7-12. We chose to switch audiences as we thought that this demographic would come with a clear direction of visual communication. We also chose this demographic as children are likely to be unaware of the issues surrounding livestock emissions as this topic is not covered heavily by media. I did some mood boarding to establish a particular design style.

My mood boards began from a very broad look at children related colours, shapes, forms and art, then I extracted the main themes which were bright colours and illustrations and found some website examples.

– Jayson
Screen Shot 2017-05-02 at 11.25.21 am
Soma, Jayson. Child Mood board 1. Screen grab. 2017
Screen Shot 2017-05-02 at 11.26.09 am
Soma, Jayson. Child Mood board 3. Screen grab. 2017
Screen Shot 2017-05-02 at 11.25.57 am
Soma, Jayson. Child Mood board 4. Screen grab. 2017

How to market to children?

Keep It Short

In today’s age of 140 characters and Instagram pictures, kids and teens have extremely short attention spans. Long sentences, lengthy explanations, and blocks of copy will not communicate your message in a way that’s easily processed. Pictures, graphic examples and short sentences that pop have helped ZinePak effectively market to younger audiences quickly and efficiently.

Hook Their Curiosity

In case you haven’t noticed, there’s a lot of noise out there. And the things that gain the attention of teens are what makes them laugh, cry, jeer or truly think. In building content for one of the top 50 most trafficked websites on the Internet, we built teen content in near real time with a unique voice and engaging visuals. Relevant content that resonates at an emotional level is king.
– Matt Hunckler, Verge

Post Sharable Videos Online

Kids and teenagers still respond to video best, but not many companies can afford a prime TV spot. The best alternative is to create exciting online videos and market them through social media channels. Once kids see their peers sharing the next cool thing, you can bet their parents will hear about it.
– Robert De Los Santos, Sky High Party Rentals

Huffingtonpost. “9 Tips for Marketing to Kids and Teens Successfully” 2014

Effective Use of Typography in Applications for Children

Your use of text should be moderate unless you are designing specific areas of an application that need to accommodate large amounts of text … for children who have experience reading.

Effective Use of Color and Graphics in Applications for Children

Most of the content and interactive elements in applications for children employ graphic components and vibrant color combinations. The effective use of color and graphics in children’s media is one of the most important aspects of design to ensure that you deliver optimal content and a memorable user experience to young users.

-Jayson
UX Matters. “Design: Designing for children. 2011

CHILDREN AS AUDIENCE IDEA DISCONTINUED


Audience development: 40-50 year olds

Critique: We’ve decided that the current aesthetic of our website would be suited to a different audience. We’ve decided that we still want to use a minimalist aesthetic but we want to communicate using black and white tones to articulate a more serious satire. This may mean that our website won’t be poppy or vibrant enough for a younger audience. Therefore we’re going to create a website for 40-50 year olds.

-Jayson

Key points that we’re going to implement into our communication

  • Formal tone in language used
  • large and simple headers
  • Simple animations with big type
  • Photography

All these elements tie into an aesthetic which is similar to that of a newspaper (use of columns, photography, bold header, serif font) which it effective as older people generally read newspapers in comparison to younger people.

Final Moodboard Development

 

Screen Shot 2017-06-08 at 1.34.39 am.png
Soma, Jayson. Final Mood Board. Screengrab, 2017

 

-Jayson

Statistics found on http://www.cowspiracy.com/facts linking to helpful resources. All of these statistics are relevant in helping us understand the huge of an impact greenhouse gas admissions are having on our environment and will help in explaining to our audience how vital it is to reduce our meat consumption.

Animal agriculture is responsible for 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, more than the combined exhaust from all transportation.   Fao.org. Spotlight: Livestock impacts on the environment.

Transportation exhaust is responsible for 13% of all greenhouse gas emissions.  [.i]

Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation.Fao.org. Spotlight: Livestock impacts on the environment.

Environmental Protection Agency. “Global Emissions.”

Livestock and their byproducts account for at least 32,000 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, or 51% of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions.

Goodland, R Anhang, J. “Livestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change were pigs, chickens and cows?”

WorldWatch, November/December 2009. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, USA. Pp. 10–19.

Animal Feed Science and Technology “comment to editor” Goodland, Anhang.

The Independent, article Nov. 2009.

Methane is 25-100 times more destructive than CO2 on a 20 year time frame.

“Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions.” Science Magazine.

Methane has a global warming potential 86 times that of CO2 on a 20 year time frame.

(Please note the following PDF is very large and may take a while to load)

“Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions.” Science Magazine.

Livestock is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of nitrous oxide – a greenhouse gas with 296 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, and which stays in the atmosphere for 150 years.

“Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006

Emissions for agriculture projected to increase 80% by 2050.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v515/n7528/full/nature13959.html

 

 

Cows produce 150 billion gallons of methane per day.   [xi]

Ross, Philip. “Cow farts have ‘larger greenhouse gas impact’ than previously thought; methane pushes climate change.” International Business Times. 2013.

250-500 liters per cow per day, x 1.5 billion cows globally is 99 – 198.1 billion gallons. Rough average of 150 billion gallons CH4 globally per day.

Even without fossil fuels, we will exceed our 565 gigatonnes CO2e limit by 2030, all from raising animals.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Source: calculation is based on http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6294 analyses that 51% of GHG are attributed to animal ag.

Reducing methane emissions would create tangible benefits almost immediately.

U.N. Press Release, Climate Summit 2014.

– WATER –

Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) water use ranges from 70-140 billion gallons annually.

“Draft Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources.” EPA Office of Research and Development. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.

Animal agriculture water consumption ranges from 34-76 trillion gallons annually.   [ii]  [xv]

Pimentel, David, et al. “Water Resources: Agricultural And Environmental Issues.” BioScience 54, no. 10 (2004): 909-18.

Barber, N.L., “Summary of estimated water use in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3098.”

Growing feed crops for livestock consumes 56% of water in the US.   [xv]

Jacobson, Michael F. “More and Cleaner Water.” In Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could save Your Health and the Environment. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.

2,500 gallons of water are needed to produce 1 pound of beef.

(NOTE. The amount of water used to produce 1lb. of beef vary greatly from 442 – 8000 gallons. We choose to use in the film the widely cited conservative number of 2500 gallons per pound of US beef from Dr. George Borgstrom, Chairman of Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept of College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, “Impacts on Demand for and Quality of land and Water.” )

Oxford Journals. “Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues”

The World’s Water. “Water Content of Things”

Journal of Animal Science. “Estimation of the water requirement for beef production in the United States.”

Robbins, John. “2,500 Gallons, All Wet?” EarthSave

Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health.” Environmental Working Group.

“Water Footprint Assessment.” University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print

477 gallons of water are required to produce 1lb. of eggs;  almost 900 gallons of water are needed for 1lb. of cheese.

“Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health.” Environmental Working Group.

1,000 gallons of water are required to produce 1 gallon of milk.

Water Footprint Network, “Product Water Footprints”.

A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products, WFN.

5% of water consumed in the US is by private homes. 55% of water consumed in the US is for animal agriculture.   [xv]

Jacobson, Michael F. “More and Cleaner Water.” In Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could save Your Health and the Environment. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.

Animal Agriculture is responsible for 20%-33% of all fresh water consumption in the world today.  

1/5 of global water consumption:

27%-30%+ of global water consummation is for animal agriculture.

1/3 of global fresh water consumed is for animal ag.

“Freshwater Abuse and Loss: Where Is It All Going?” Forks Over Knives

– LAND –

Livestock or livestock feed occupies 1/3 of the earth’s ice-free land.

FAO. “Livestock a major threat to environment”

Livestock covers 45% of the earth’s total land.

Thornton, Phillip, Mario Herrero, and Polly Ericksen. “Livestock and Climate Change.” Livestock Exchange, no. 3 (2011).

IPCC AR5 WG# Chapter 11, Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Us (AFOLU)

Animal agriculture is the leading cause of species extinction, ocean dead zones, water pollution, and habitat destruction.  [xix]  [iv]

Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in many ways. In addition to the monumental habitat destruction caused by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, predators and “competition” species are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits. The widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers used in the production of feed crops often interferes with the reproductive systems of animals and poison waterways. The overexploitation of wild species through commercial fishing, bushmeat trade as well as animal agriculture’s impact on climate change, all contribute to global depletion of species and resources. [XIX]

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

 

 

2-5 acres of land are used per cow.

The Diverse Structure and Organization of U.S. Beef Cow-Calf Farms / EIB-73:  study by USDA – Economic Research Service ( for acres/cow- pages 12 and 13)

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work.

Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

– WASTE –

A farm with 2,500 dairy cows produces the same amount of waste as a city of 411,000 people. [vi]

“Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Research and Development. 2004.

130 times more animal waste than human waste is produced in the US – 1.4 billion tons from the meat industry annually. 5 tons of animal waste is produced per person in the US.   [xii]

Animal agriculture: waste management practices. United States General Accounting Office.

 

Animals produce Enough waste to cover SF, NYC, Tokyo, etc,

based off 1lb of waste per 1sqft at 1.4 billion tons.

US Livestock produce 335 million tons of “dry matter” per year.

– RAINFOREST –

Animal agriculture is responsible for up to 91% of Amazon destruction.

World Bank. “Causes of Deforestation of theBrazilian Amazon”

Margulis, Sergio. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest. Washington: World Bank Publications, 2003.

WORLD BANK WORKING PAPER NO. 22

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

1-2 acres of rainforest are cleared every second.

“Avoiding Unsustainable Rainforest Wood.” Rainforest Relief.

Facts about the rainforest.

Rainforest facts.

World Resources Institute, “Keeping Options Alive”.

The leading causes of rainforest destruction are livestock and feedcrops.

“Livestock impacts on the environment.” Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (fao). 2006.

Up to137 plant, animal and insect species are lost every day due to rainforest destruction.

“Rainforest statistics and facts.” Save the amazon.

 

 

– HUMANITY –

414 billion dollars in externalized cost from animal ag.   [xvi]

Simon, David Robinson. “Meatonomics” Conari Press (September 1, 2013)

Huffington Post, Sept 2013.

Why A Big Mac Should Cost $200

Global Environmental costs of Animal Agriculture estimated at $170 billion

70 billion farmed animals are reared annually worldwide. More than 6 million animals are killed for food every hour.

 

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Throughout the world, humans drink 5.2 billion gallons of water and eat 21 billion pounds of food each day.

Based on rough averages of 0.75 gallons of water and 3 lbs of food per day. water – 1/2 – 1 gallon

food – 3lbs globally per capita per day

US Americans consume 5.3lbs of food per day

Worldwide, cows drink 45 billion gallons of water and eat 135 billion pounds of food each day.

Based on rough average of 30 gallons of water and 90 lbs of feed per day for 1.5 billion cows.

 

Worldwide, at least 50% of grain is fed to livestock.

FAO, “Livestock – a driving force for food security and sustainable development”.

Global Issues, “BEEF”.

Wisconsin Soybean Association, “U.S. and Wisconsin Soybean Facts”.

 

 

 

 

Land required to feed 1 person for 1 year:

Vegan: 1/6th acre

Vegetarian: 3x as much as a vegan

Meat Eater: 18x as much as a vegan   [xvii]

Robbins, John. Diet for a New America, StillPoint Publishing, 1987, p. 352

“Our food our future.” Earthsave.

PNAS. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

 

1.5 acres can produce 37,000 pounds of plant-based food.1.5 acres can produce 375 pounds of meat.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

.A person who follows a vegan diet produces the equivalent of 50% less carbon dioxide, uses 1/11th oil, 1/13th water, and 1/18th land compared to a meat-lover for their food.   [xx]

 

Each day, a person who eats a vegan diet saves 1,100 gallons of water, 45 pounds of grain, 30 sq ft of forested land, 20 lbs CO2 equivalent, and one animal’s life.   [xiv]

“Water Footprint Assessment.” University of Twente, the Netherlands.

“Measuring the daily destruction of the world’s rainforests.” Scientific American, 2009.

“Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.” Climactic change, 2014.

“Meat eater’s guide to climate change and health.” The Environmental Working Group.

-Savannah

Week 2.2

In today’s lecture, we talked about the importance of HTML, CCS and Javascript to our assignment. We also went over some resources that we can refer to when coding our websites. In my spare time, I watched half of the Lynda tutorial and downloaded Brackets to start getting familiar with code.
Savannah and I decided to stick with our idea but change our target audience to children aged 7-12. We chose to switch audiences as we thought that this demographic would come with a clear direction of visual communication. We also chose this demographic as children are likely to be unaware of the issues surrounding livestock emissions as this topic is not covered heavily by media. I did some mood boarding to established a particular design style

 

.

 

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